Agrosilvopasture is a highly diverse land use system that integrates agricultural crops with livestock and trees. With the exception that the production is usually focused on smaller diversity of fruit trees than home gardens. There are numerous tree plantations with different purposes that are maintained this way. Animal presence in return comes with improved productivity that is advantageous for farmers, trees and even soils. For example, the U.S. and European farmers often let livestock graze among trees marketed for their high-quality wood, such as cherry or walnut. The best trees for this purpose are leguminous trees that fix nitrogen in the soil. These areas can also support wildlife and provide another source of income. Trees have a wonderful ability of remediating polluted soils and regenerating degraded lands. However, timing in this practice is crucial. These buffers can help filter farm runoff while the roots stabilize the banks of streams, rivers, lakes and ponds to prevent erosion. For example, a traditional system of planting mulberry trees on dykes among fishponds combined with silkworm farming in China is a great practice with high productivity that is achieved through the interconnectedness of these diverse components. The benefits reach even beyond the boundaries of the farming community. NREM 301 Agroforestry LectureTravis Idol- 3 Alley cropping is a form of agroforestry where rows of trees are interspersed with rows of annual crops. For example, cattle can greatly help in reducing pests by eating the first fallen apples on the ground. Crops can be intercropped with fruit trees and animals can be allowed to graze in certain parts of the orchard–according to the season and the needs of the farmer. Agroforestry is an integrated approach using benefits of interaction between agriculture and forestry technologies to create more diverse, productive, profitable, healthy, and sustainable land use systems (Tewabech & Efrem 2014; Daizy et al. As well as building on practices used in forestry and agriculture, agroforestry also works towards land protection and conservation through more effective protection of stock, control of soil erosion, salinity and water tables and a higher quality control of timber. For thousands of years, people have been harvesting fruits and nuts from trees, making hay from the grass underneath or growing staple crops along the natural tree boundary that has defined their property. In some regions, farmers grow plantation crops in integrated multilayer mixture. Agroforestry is a land use management system in which trees or shrubs are grown around or among crops or pastureland. Agroforestry systems may be thought of as principle parts of the farm system itself, ... suitability for various agroforestry practices. The area has a long history of a fruitful agroforestry system which combines apple and walnut tree orchards with hay making, beekeeping and cultivation of morel mushrooms. Agroforestry practices. Farm’s livestock can feed from hedges and use them for shelter when needed. Silvopasture allows these interactions by closely imitating diversity of the natural environment that supports animal wellbeing and ecosystem reconstruction. Some sources refer to this method of farming as intercropping as well. Well-designed agroforestry system can suppress the growth of weeds by restricting their space and/or deterring them through the allelopathic effect–when trees release growth inhibiting chemicals into the soil . Some methods have even proven so effective that they have become the new normal in cultivation of a certain crop or a livestock species, like coffee grown in the shade of native tropical trees, which suits coffee plants better than growing alone. Beekeeping can be easily implemented into agroforestry system, as trees provide a nice and safe habitat for bees while supplying enough pollen and nectar for their nourishment. Farmers can also plant forage crops or grass mixes among the fruit trees. Living fences Agroforestry is a widespread practice … Conserves the environment by fixing carbon dioxide (CO2) and releasing oxygen (O2). According to International Council for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF) “Agroforestry is a system of land use where woody perennials are deliberately used on the same land management units as annual agricultural crops and / or animals, either sequentially or simultaneously, with the aim of obtaining greater outputs on sustained basis”. Their activity usually helps to keep the plot free of weeds and soils well aerated, which also encourages abundant growth of trees. Apiculture stands for beekeeping. Tree presence also positively affects animals, making them feel calmer and happier, closer to their natural environment. Livestock is either allowed to roam and graze among the fodder trees, or farmers prune the trees and feed the pruning in the stable or other livestock enclosure. Conservation buffers serve as protective barriers, created from trees and shrubs of differing density, that mitigate the impact of farming activities on the surrounding environment. A silvopasture is designed to function like a savannah with widely spaced trees to provide shade for grazing animals. Why? Mixed tree gardens have been for many years cultivated In West Sumatra, Indonesia, where around two thirds of the agricultural land are managed this way. Some of the most common uses of trees in agroforestry systems are: •Individual trees in home gardens, around houses, paths, and public places. 10. Alley cropping is an agroforestry system in which food crops are grown in alleys formed by contour hedge rows of trees or shrubs. 8. In many land use scenarios, we can see riparian buffers covering the banks of rivers and lakes. Xeromorphic agroforestry system: It is the dryland agroforestry in arid and semi-arid areas, e.g., Agroforestry practices in Africa. Producers are now increasingly asking how to begin the process of establishing agroforestry systems. In some cases, olive trees can share the same plot with other fruit trees that are either scattered among the olives or organized in a spatial arrangement that suits the farmer . Bee hives can be placed along the tree line, which leaves plenty of space for other agricultural production and livestock. Free-roaming domestic animals in the woodlands nearby human settlements have been throughout the centuries one of the most common sights across the world. Aquatic animals benefit from the presence of trees because tree foliage may serve as an additional source of nutrition. (i) Silvopastoral system with control grazing. For example, in Northern Ireland, 60 percent of the broadleaved cover is made of shrubs and trees in hedgerows . In some regions, this period comes during colder months. Some of the popular leguminous tree species are Gliricidia, Leucaena, Ficus or Acacia. Agroforestry systems are more ecologically complex than monoculture systems, but they can also be less reliant on the work of the farmer and the use of synthetic pesticides and fertilizers to sustain desired levels of production. 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