3DES, which consists of three sequential Data Encryption Standard (DES) encryption-decryptions, is a legacy algorithm. Therefore, the complexity becomes which is more than the differential attacks key searching complexities on AES. Provide full specification and design details. These bytes are interpreted as the elements of finite field using the following polynomial representation:where each is having the value of or . Our proposed approach of key expansion N variables applied from our previous work [7] satisfies the propagation criterion of degree k and order m if any affine function obtained from the outputs by keeping input bits constant satisfies the propagation criterion of degree . Moreover, the balancedness and the correlation immunity are 0 in original AES. Road, Phagwara, Punjab, India, 2Department of Convergence Security, Sungshin Women’s University, Seongbuk-gu 02844, Republic of Korea. Key size assigned here is 128 bits. In our proposed modified AES, the nonlinearity feature increases this difference and therefore, the key space of searching also increases drastically. The randomness of SRFG has been used in three parts: first, in the function of g, secondly, the recursive word generation from key spaces, and thirdly but most prominently, addition of and SRFG for generating the words from to . The minimal fault against AES has been used in [14]. As a result, even though attackers are deducing a part of key or injecting a biased fault, the fault will be converted to a symmetric output rather than revealing the original key or plaintext. The same process is repeated till we get the required number of words for the 14 rounds in AES. The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) [26] was published by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 2001. AES is a symmetric block cipher where a single key is used for both encryption and decryption process. The nonlinearity is calculated by the hamming distance between two affine transformations. If different keys are used the process is defined as asymmetric. All these steps are performed for each of the round in the AES excluding the last round. The work shown previously in [13] was having a key space of which has been reduced by the authors in [15]. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. The algorithm names in this section can be specified when generating an instance of AlgorithmParameterGenerator. There are four groups of cryptographic algorithms. Eventually, the key is revealed. Since is symmetric and balanced, we can haveLet be an integer, , , and . The similar result of Avalanche effect is also experimented in the bit values of the data samples. The schematic of AES structure is given in the following illustration −, Here, we restrict to description of a typical round of AES encryption. Each byte of the state matrixes is replaced by its multiplicative inverse, followed by an affine mapping as follows:where is the bit of the byte and is the bit of a byte with the value 63 or 01100011. Furthermore, the attacker uses four related but unknown keys as . The high correlation immunity will also help the modified AES to prevent correlation attacks [28]. This is sufficient to provide a four-word round key for the initial AddRoundKey stage and each of the 10 rounds of the cipher. Road, Phagwara, Punjab, India, Department of Convergence Security, Sungshin Women’s University, Seongbuk-gu 02844, Republic of Korea. Moreover, we have compared the computation time for our experiments with the original AES algorithm. Symmetric key algorithms use the same key for encryption and decryption. Multiple deductions-based algebraic trace driven cache attack on AES has been shown in [22]. Interestingly, AES performs all its computations on bytes rather than bits. The GenerateKey and GenerateIV methods return the private secret key and initialization vector. We assume that the faulty key byte is injected in the key matrix for any random original key byte. Nonlinearity is an important design characteristic for cryptographic functions used in cryptographic algorithms to prevent different types of correlation or linear attacks or even related attacks. Therefore in original AES, the key recovery space is reduced with less complexity as we have seen in the literature review. The 16 input bytes are substituted by looking up a fixed table (S-box) given in design. Following the above property, an interesting feature of our proposed key expansion module has been identified and the proposition has been given as follows. Implementations. An explanation of the Key Generation or Key Expansion process in AES Algorithm To solve this problem in AES, we have modified the key expansion module of AES with Symmetric Random Function Generator (SRFG) [7]. 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